Whenua, Fenua, Vanua - Te wāhi ki ngā tāngata nō Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa


Ko Aotearoa tētahi whenua o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa he hononga ā-ahurea, ā-ohaoha, ā-whakahaere kāwanatanga anō hoki ki ētahi atu whenua o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa me ōna takiwā. Ko ngā mahi whakaari o Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao ērā i tārai i aua hononga, ā, e whai pānga tonu ana i ēnei rā nei. Kia mārama tātou ki ērā mahi whakaari, me whai māramatanga tātou ki ngā whenua e kōrerohia nei, ōna ahurea me ōna hītori tae atu ki te āhua o te hononga ki Aotearoa i taua wā.

raro9

Te Kuki Airani (Cook Islands)

He kotahi tonu ētahi āhuatanga ā-ahurea, ā-reo, ā-whakapapa anō hoki o Ngāi Māori o Te Kuki Airani me Ngāi Māori o Aotearoa. I takea mai ētahi, i pae hoki ētahi o ngā waka tipuna i Te Kuki Airani. Ko te waka o Takitimu tērā i tū ki te moutere o Rarotonga, ko Kurahaupō hoki tērā i tū ki te moutere o Atiu. He rite tonu, he āhua rite rānei ngā kōrero taketake pēnei i ngā kōrero mō Māui me tana hī ake i ngā moutere o Rakahanga me Manihiki i Te Kuki Airani, i Te Ika a Māui i Aotearoa hoki.

E takoto ana ngā motu 15 o Te Kuki Airani e 1,500 kiromita ki te rāwhiti o Hāmoa, e 3,000 kiromita rāwhiti-mā-raki i Tāmakimakaurau, ā, he marara tēnei takoto ki te moana. Ko te whānui o tōna marara he rite ki te rahi o te whenua o Mehiko. He mea noho ēnei motu ki ngā rōpū e rua. Ko ngā motu o te raki, e ono ōna motu toka; ko ngā motu o te tonga e iwa ōna motu puia, ōna motu pukepuke.

map of the cook islands(external link)

I te wā nei kei Te Kuki Airani tōna ake mana whakahaere, ko Aotearoa hei hoa herekore nō te tau 1965 ā mohoa nei. Kei te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa te haepapa ki ngā take o waho atu o Te Kuki Airani, heoi anō, ka matapaki kōrero tonu ki te kāwanatanga o Te Kuki Airani mō reira whakatauria atu ai. He tangata whenua ā-kirirarautanga ngā tāngata o Te Kuki Airani i Aotearoa, ā, e whai wāhi ana hoki ki ngā ratonga o te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa. Ka mutu, he tokomaha ake ngā tāngata Kuki Airani e noho ana ki Aotearoa i te tokomaha e noho ana ki Te Kuki Airani.

I mana te noho o Te Kuki Airani i raro i te marumaru o Te Tōpūtanga o ngā Whenua o Ingarangi i te tau 1888 i runga i te wehi o ngā hapori ki te tūponotanga nui ka nōhia tō rātou whenua e te iwi Wīwī pēnei i tō rātou noho ki Tahiti. I te take i noho tonu te mana whakahaere o te nuinga o ngā motu ki ngā ariki o aua motu. I whakatauhia e Te Kāwanatanga o Aotearoa i te tau 1901 kia tūhono i ngā whakahaere o Aotearoa ki ērā o te Kuki Airani ahakoa te kore hiahia o ētahi o ngā ariki taketake o taua whenua. I te āhua o te noho wehe o ngā whakahaere o tēnā motu, o tēnā motu i runga i te take i ngā ariki tonu te mana whakahaere, karekau ō rātou ture ā-motu whānui ki te tautoko, ki te whakahē rānei i te tuku o ngā moutere ki Aotearoa.

Nō Te Kuki Airani, nō Niue hoki te rahinga o ngā tāngata taketake i tū ki te kapa New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF). Ko te ope hōia nō Niue me te Tānga Kuki Airani Tuatahi ērā i noho hei tānga mō Te Ope Tuatahi o Aotearoa ki Ihipa kātahi ki Wīwī hoki. Ko ngā ope tuarua, tuatoru hoki o Te Kuki Airani, ērā i mōhiotia ko Te Kamupene Rarotonga, i tū tahi ki ngā Piritana i ngā pakanga i tū ki Hinai (Sinai) , ki Parahitini (Palestine) hoki ki ngā Hotomana Tōka (Ottoman Turk). He tūao te katoa.

He hokinga mahara a te iwi Kuki Airani o nāianei rā ki te hunga kua mū

He hokinga mahara a te iwi Kuki Airani o nāianei rā ki te hunga kua mū

Torohia te honongaitua nei ki NZEF(external link) ki te rapu pārongo atu anō mō ngā tāngata nō Te Kuki Airani.

Hāmoa (Samoa)

Hamoa(external link)

E rua ngā wehenga o ngā motu o Hāmoa; ko te wehenga kei te uru e noho ana tērā e noho motuhake ana; ko tērā atu wehenga tērā e kīia nei ko Hāmoa Amerikana (American Samoa), ā, he wāhanga ēnei motu kei te rāwhiti e noho ana o Ngā Whenua Tōpū o Amerika (United States of America). E 64 kiromita noa iho te whānui o te māwehenga i waenganui i ēnei wehenga motu e rua.

Kua rarangahia te hītori o Hāmoa ki ētahi whakapaparanga rangatira o Whītī (Fiji), ki te Kīngitanga hoki o Tonga. Kei ngā kōrero tuku iho e pā ana ki ngā pakanga i tū i waenganui i a Hāmoa me ōna whenua noho tata ēnei hītori e purutia ana. 

Hei tauira, e kitea ana i te rangatiratanga Malietoa te pana o te whakahaere Tonga i te motu o Uporu (Upolu). I puta te kōrero i a Talakaifaiki, uri o te whānau Tu’i o Tonga, i te wā i panaia a ia i Hāmoa e te ture: "Mālie toa, mālie tau”. Ko tōna whakamāoritanga, “he hautoa, i rangatira te whawhai”

I te tau 1889 i whakaae te kāwanatanga ki Piritana kia noho a Hāmoa ki raro i te mana whakahaere o rātou ko Tiamana (Germany), ko Ngā Whenua Tōpū o Amerika. Ka pau te tekau tau, ka wāhia a Hāmoa. I riro ki a Tiamana te rahinga o te whenua, ā, i purutia ngā motu poniponi Manu’a me Tutuila e Ngā Whenua Tōpū o Amerika me tētahi tumu herenga waka ki Pango Pango (Pago Pago). Ko tā Te Tōpūtanga o ngā Whenua o Ingarangi (Britain) mahi he tauhokohoko i ngā whenua o Hāmoa kia riro i a ia ētahi whenua i Tonga, i Ngā Moutere Horomona (Soloman Islands), i ētahi takiwā hoki o Awherika (Africa) pēnei i Hanipā (Zanzibar).

Nō te pakarutanga mai o te pakanga ki Ūropi (Europe) i te tau 1914, ka nōhia te whenua o Hāmoa e ngā ope taua o Aotearoa. I te hinganga o Tiamana i te pakanga i riro te mana whenua o ōna whenua pāmamao ki whakahaere kē, ā, ko Aotearoa tērā ki Hāmoa ki te Uru.

I te tīmatanga o te rau tau rua tekau, i te tipu te matangurunguru o ngā tāngata o Hāmoa ki te āhua o te whakahaere o te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa nā reira i hua mai ai te kuhunga rangatiratanga taikore e kīia nei ko te ‘Mau’. Heoi anō, i te 28 o Hakihea i te tau 1929, i puhia kia mate tētahi hunga tokoiwa neke atu e ngā pirihimana taua o Aotearoa, i a rātou e tohe taikore ana, ā, ko tētahi o rātou i mate ko te ariki Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III.

I te tau 1962 i noho ko Hāmoa te tuatahi o ngā whenua o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa i wātea i ngā whakahaere a whenua kē, ā, i waitohungia tētahi Tiriti Noho Āpiti ki Aotearoa.

Ko te taunga atu o ngā taua moana o Te Rōpū Taua Moana o Aotearoa ki Apia ki Hāmoa, 29 o Here-turi-kōkā 1914, me te tono i te mana whenua i Tiamana.

Alexander Turnbull Library Reference No: PAColl-3752, 1/1-002929-G

Alexander Turnbull Library Reference No: PAColl-3752, 1/1-002929-G

 

Niue

Niue(external link)

Ko Niue, te whenua e mōhiotia ana ko ‘te toka’, tērā e takoto ana e 2,400 kiromita rāwhiti-mā-raki i Te Reinga, i Aotearoa. I tōna 259 kiromita pūrua te rahi, i te takiwā o te 68 kiromita tōna taumata i te mata o te moana, ko Niue tētahi o ngā whenua toka nui o te ao.

E ai ki te whakapono, kua neke atu i te kotahi mano tau e nōhia ana te whenua ki Niue. Kei ngā kōrero taketake, ngā kōrero o nehe te paki e pā ana ki te whakapūwhenuatanga tuatahi a Huanaki rāua ko Fao, he uri nō Tonga. E ai ki ētahi, i nōhia te whenua nei i te hekenga matua e rua, tētahi i Hāmoa, tētahi i Tonga me tētahi hekenga iti i te motu o Pukapuka i Te Kuki Airani.

I kohaina te whenua o Niue ki Aotearoa e Te Tōpūtanga o ngā Whenua o Ingarangi i te tau 1901 mōna i whakapeto ngoi i te wā o te pakanga i tū ki Awherika ki te Tonga (South Africa). I tukuna i raro i te Whakahau me te Pānuitanga kotahi, tērā i puta i te tuku i te mana o Te Kuki Airani.

I whakaaetia te whakahaere a Niue i tōna ake whenua e te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa me te ture o te tau 1974 i muri tata mai i te whakatau ā-motu o taua tau tonu i reira whakatakotoria ai ki Niue ngā kōwhiringa e toru: Kia noho mana motuhake; kia whakahaerehia tō rātou ake kāwanatanga; kia noho tonu rānei hei whenua o Aotearoa.

I Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, i uru atu te 150 tūao nō Niue ki ngā whawhai. Kāore anō te rahinga o rātou kia puta i Niue, kia kai rānei i ngā kai a te Pākehā. Kāore i mōhio ki te kōrero i te reo Pākehā, kāore anō kia mau hū. I te tau 1916, i te paunga o te toru marama rātou e whakangungu ana ki Narrow Neck ki Tāmakimakarau ka tukuna ngā hōia nei ki Ihipa (Egypt) , ki Wīwī (France) hoki me Te Ope Māori o Aotearoa.

Ngā hōia Māori me ngā hōia Niue ki te tahatika o te moana ki Narrow Neck ki Tāma

Ngā hōia Māori me ngā hōia Niue ki te tahatika o te moana ki Narrow Neck ki Tāmakimakaurau. He mea whakaputa e Auckland Weekly News, i te tau 1916. Nō te kohinga e kīia nei ko Te Kohinga Hira Nui a Tā George Grey, Whare pukapuka Tāmakimakaurau, 7-A14559.

Torohia te honongaitua nei ki NZEF(external link) ki te rapu pārongo atu anō mō ngā tāngata nō Niue i NZEF

 

Tonga

 Tonga(external link)

He whenua motuhake te Kingatanga o Tonga (Kingdom of Tonga), ā, e 176 katoa ngā motu, e 52 o aua motu kei te nōhia e te tangata. Ko ōna whenua karapoti ki te uru-mā-raki ko Whītī, ko Wārihi (Wallis), ko Whutuna (Futuna); ko Hāmoa ki te raki-mā-whiti; ko Niue ki te rāwhiti. Ahakoa kāore i te pērā rawa te rite o te ahurea, o te reo o Tonga ki te ahurea me te reo Māori o Aotearoa kei reira anō ōna ritenga. Ko Māui hoki tērā i hī ake i ngā motu o Rōwhanga (Lofaga) me ētahi atu motu hoki i te kāhui motu o Hāpai (Ha’apai), o Whawhau (Vava’u) hoki.

E mōhiotia ana a Tonga i ngā tau i tana nui whai wāhi ki te whakarewatanga o te kāhui ariki, Tu’i Tonga, nā ‘Aho’eitu e kotahi mano tau i mua. He wā tōna, i te wā i noho a Tu’i Tonga Talakaifaiki hei kīngi,  i noho rangatira a Tonga ki ngā motu huhua pēnei i te kohinga motu Rau (Lau, Whītī ki te rāwhiti), i Niue, i Uwhea (‘Uvea), i Whutuna (Futuna), i Uporu me Hawai (Savai’i) hoki i Hāmoa.

 

Tonga i Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao

Ko te Kīngitanga o Tonga anake te whenua o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa kāore i whakapūwhenuatia e whenua kē. Ko tā rātou uru ki Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao he uru i runga anō i tō rātou Tiriti Noho Āpiti ki Ngā Whenua Tōpū o Ingarani.

I te tau 1916, i whakaritea e te Māngai o Ngā Whenua Tōpū o Ingarangi tētahi rārangi ingoa o te hunga hoariri i Tonga e noho ana. I rārangi mai ngā ingoa 150, he Tiamana ētahi, he Hāmoa ētahi; he tangata nō Ngā Moutere Niu Kini (New Guinea Islands), ō rātou hoa wahine me ō rātou whānau - he tangata nō Tiamana te katoa. I ārikarika ā rātou mahi e te Kāwanatanga o Tonga, ā, ko ētahi hoki o rātou i tereputia ki Aotearoa hei mauhere o te pakanga.

I te tōmuatanga o te tau 1916 i tukuna tētahi kāhui kohikohi hōia o Te Whare Tū Taua o Aotearoa ki Tonga, ā, i hoki mahi i taua tau me ētahi tānga hōia. Nō rātou i Aotearoa ka uru ki ngā kapa hōia, ko ētahi ki te Ope Māori Tuatahi, ko ētahi ki Te Kapa Hōia o Tāmakimakaurau. He tokomaha o rātou i uru atu i te 1916 i tae atu ki ngā kakaritanga ki Mehenī (Messines), ki Pāhinitari (Passchendaele) hoki i te tau 1917.

Te whakatakoto puapua maharatanga ki te pūtake o te Tohu Whakamaharatanga o Tong

Te whakatakoto puapua maharatanga ki te pūtake o te Tohu Whakamaharatanga o Tonga, tērā e whakahōnore ana i ngā tāngata nō Tonga i riro i ngā pakanga e rua o te ao. Nā US Pacific Fleet, 2012. Kua tiakina ētahi mana.

Whītī

Whiti(external link)

E noho ana Te Whenua Motuhake o Whītī e 2,000 kiromita rāwhiti-mā-raki i Te Ika-a-Māui o Aotearoa. Ko ōna whenua noho tata ko Whanuatu (Vanuatu) ki te uru, ko Hāmoa ki te rāwhiti-mā-raki, ko Tuwharu (Tuwharu) ki te raki. E 332 motu kei te kāhui motu o Whītī, e 110 o aua motu kei te nōhia e te tangata, ā, kei te takiwā o te 850,000 te kaute tangata.

E ai ki ētahi kōrero tuku iho, ko Lutunasobasoba tētahi o ngā rangatira tōmua i tatū atu ki Whītī i runga i tōna waka, Kaunitoni. E ai ki ngā mātanga mātauranga tikanga tangata i whakapūwhenuatia te whenua ki Whītī e ngā kaitoro me ngā kaitauhokohoko e 35,000 tau ki mua. He mea whakatau tēnei i runga i ngā hahunga auaha uku Rapita (Lapita) i kitea. Kua tipu mai te ahurea o Whītī i ngā pānga o Meranīhia (Melanesia), heoi anō he kaha hoki ngā āhuatanga Tonga, me ngā āhuatanga Hāmoa hoki o roto.

I te āhua o te noho o Whītī i raro i te mana o Ngā Whenua Tōpū o Ingarangi, i tukuna ngā ope tāne, ngā tānga hoki hei hāpai pū i te Ope Taua o Piritana. I te tīmatanga, i whakaaetia noatia e Piritana ngā kiritea nō Whītī, otirā, i te tau 1917 i whakaaetia hoki te Kapa Mahi Whītī hei tango utauta i ngā kaipuke i ngā tumu herenga waka Wīwī, Itāria hoki.

I te wā i tāpaetia e Whītī tētahi ope mātāwaka huhua i te tau 1918 i tukuna te whakaaro ki te Hekeretari o Ngā Whenua Huihuinga (State of Colonies) hei take whakawā mā te ture o Aotearoa. I whakaaetia te tāpaetanga e Aotearoa. I tatū atu ngā tāngata nō Whītī ki Tāmakimakaurau i te marama o Here-turi-kōkā i te tau 1918, ā, ka kotahi atu ki Narrow Neck me te ope tānga tuawhā nō Te Kuki Airani.

 

Te tohu whakamarahatanga Levuka nō roto o Whītī. 1914-18, The National Archives

Te tohu whakamarahatanga Levuka nō roto o Whītī. 1914-18, The National Archives UK. Part of CO 1069/647.Kua tiakina ētahi mana

Ngā Motu Kiripati (Kiribati, Gilbertese)

I te wā o Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, kotahi tonu te mana whenua o ngā motu e mōhiotia whānuitia ana i ēnei rangi nei ko Kiripati, ko Tuwharu. Ko Ngā Motu Kiripati me Irihi (Ellis) te ingoa, he mana whenua nō ngā whakahaere o Ngā Whenua Tōpū o Ingarangi. E 25 pirihimana taketake nō Kiripati hīkaka ki te tū hei taua, ā, i pae atu rātou ki Tāmakimakaurau i te marama o Hōngongoi i te tau 1918. 

Tuwharu (Tuvalu)

Tuvalu(external link)

Ko Tuwharu tētahi whenua poniponi nei, ā, ko ‘te tū takiwaru’ te tikanga o tōna ingoa. E tohu ana te ingoa i te maha o ngā motu e nōhia ana e ōna tāngata, e waru. Ko ōna whenua noho tata ko Kiripati, ko Nauru, ko Hāmoa, ko Whītī. Ko tōna taupori tāngata e 10,837. E 26 kiromita pūrua te horanga o te katoa o ngā motu o Tuwharu.

Ko tētahi kōrero tuku iho mō te tipu mai o ngā whenua Tuwharu, ko tērā e kōrero ana mō te Tuna me te Pātiki; ko te Pātiki tērā i noho hei tohu whakamarahatanga ki te papatahi o ngā whenua toka o Tuwharu. He rerekē tō tēnā motu mārama ki ngā kōrero tuku iho ki ō ētahi atu motu. Ki ngā motu o Nutao (Niutao), o Whunawhuti (Funafuti), o Waitapu (Vaitapu) hoki nō Hāmoa te tipuna tuatahi o Tuwharu. Engari anō a Nanumea, nō Tonga kē te tipuna tuatahi. 

Kiripati (Kiribati)

 Kiribati(external link)

Ko Te Whenua Motuhake o Kiripati te whenua kei te pūtahi o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. E 33 katoa ōna whenua toka me ōna whenua ākau, ā, kotahi anake tana whenua rāngai wheo, ko Pānapa (Banaba). 100,000 ngā tāngata noho pūmau ki ēnei motu, ā, ko tētahi haurua o rātou e noho ana ki te whenua toka o Tarawa.

I ngā kōrero taketake o Kiripati ko Tarawa te motu matua o ngā motu o Kiripati. He mea tapa tōna ingoa e Nareau, te atua o ngā pūngāwerewere, i muri mai i tana tapa karangatanga ki te rangi ko ‘karawa’, ki te moana ko ‘marawa’; i tapaina te toka i reira i tū ai a Riiki, atua o te tuna, ko ‘Tarawa’ i tana te āhua o tana whakawehe i te rangi me te whenua. Mutu ana, ka hangaia e Nareau ērā atu motu o Kiripati, i roto hoki o Hāmoa.

Tā Māui Pōmare

Ko Māui Pōmare tētahi tangata i nui tōna whai mana i Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa i ngā tau o Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. I tana noho hei Minita ko tētahi haepapa ōna ko te kawe i ngā take o Te Kuki Airani me ētahi atu motu. Nāna te tukanga tono tānga hōia i ngā motu o Te Kuki Airani, o Niue hoki. I te kapinga o te mautohe ki Gallipoli i te tau 1915 i tere atu a Māui ki Niue, ā, ko hoki mai ki Tāmakimakaurau i te marama o Whringa-a-nuku me ngā tāngata 150 te tokomaha. I piri atu rātou ki ngā hōia 45 o Te Kuki Airani i tere atu ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara ki te tū ngārahu ki Pāremata. I whakangungua ēnei hōia ki Narrow Neck, ā, hei wāhanga rātou o te Tānga Ope Tuatoru Māori tae atu ki Hui-tanguru o te tau 1916, kātahi rā ka rere atu ki Suez. Neke atu i te 500 tāngata nō Te Kuki Airani i tū hei hōia i te pakanga nei. 

Nō te wā i nōhia ai te whenua i kīia rā ko Hāmoa o Tiamana e Aotearoa i muri mai i Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, ka taunaki a Māui i te kuhunga taikore a ngā tāngata Hāmoa i kīia rā ko ‘Mau’, i a rātou e kōkiri ana kia noho herekore a Hāmoa i ngā ture o Aotearoa i ngā tau tōmua o 1900. I tereputia ki Aotearoa tētahi o ngā ariki o Hāmoa, he kaikōkiri hoki o te kapa Mau, ko Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III. I mauheretia ki Tāmakimakaurau. I tae atu a Māui ki a ia, nōna e mauheretia ana, me tana kī ake:

“I mātaihia e au te mata o tama au Ariki - ka tika, he rangatira - i hua mai i te ure tārewa te whakapapa nō te wā o te pōuriuri - i tupea ōna taitara tuku iho,  i whakatūtūātia, i tereputia, i mauheretia hoki”

I whakaaetia te hokinga atu o Tupua Tamasese Lealofi III ki Hāmoa i te tau 1929.


Torohia te honongaitua nei ki te rapu pārongo atu anō mō Tā Māui Pōmare(external link)

  • Ao
  • Tāngia.
  • Tiritiria.

Kaiako' Notes

He whakatakinga tēnei kohinga pārongo ki te wāhi ki ngā whenua nō Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa i Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, ka mutu ō rātou hononga ki Aotearoa i tēnei horopaki tonu:

  • te takotoranga o ēnei whenua ki Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa

  • ngā tauritenga, ngā tauaringa ahurea

  • te hītori o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa e kōrero ana mō ōna mana whakahaere

  • te pānga o Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao ki ngā tāngata o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa
Tīkina ake.

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Map of Samoan Islands

Map of Samoan Islands

Samoan Material Culture - [map of Samoa]

Samoa

Samoa

Upolu and Savai‘i are the two major inhabited islands of Samoa. Tutuila, the main island of American Samoa, lies 80...

German map of Apia and district, Samoa

German map of Apia and district, Samoa

Photograph of a German map of Apia and villages in the Apia area. Photographed by Alfred John Tattersall between...

No image available.

Black Saturday map

Map showing movements of Mau and Police on Black Saturday

Tonga

Tonga

Tonga consists of about 170 islands with a total land area of 700 sq km, stretching from the Tongatapu group...

THE WATERFRONT AT FUNAFUTI

THE WATERFRONT AT FUNAFUTI

Coastwatchers - Gilbert and Ellice Islands - THE WATERFRONT AT FUNAFUTI