Te tūhura i te tirohanga a tangata kē ki te iwi Māori.


I te tōmuatanga o te tau 1900 i rerekē te āhua o te herenga tangata o te Māori me te Pākehā. Nō mua noa atu i taua tau ka mutu ai ngā pakanga i waenganui i ngā iwi nei heoi anō te pānga o te hekenganui a te Pākehā ki te Māori ērā nā reira i raru ai te hauora, me te oranga tonutanga o te Māori. 

1914Maori

Te iwi Māori me te iwi Pākehā o onamata

I mua noa atu i te taenga mai o te iwi Pākehā ki Aotearoa hangaia ai ngā whare o te iwi taketake, o te iwi Māori ki te rākau, ki ngā tipu hoki nā rātou anō i hauhake, i kohikohi i ngā ngahere me ngā repo.

He mea raranga, he mea whakairo, he mea whakarākei ka mutu, he mea tiaki hoki ēnei rawa katoa i raro i ngā tikanga a te Māori waihoki, i roto i te āhua o te o te wā, o te noho tahi anō hoki.
(external link)

Tae mai ana te iwi Pākehā ko rātou tērā i noho tokoiti ki te tokomaha Māori i taua wā rā, ā, i ora rātou i ngā rawa a te iwi Māori me ōna mōhiotanga ki te kohikohi kai, te hanga rongoā Māori me te hanga whare; me tōna mārama māori noa ki te hanga o te whenua. 

Taunga ana te herenga tangata o waenganui i te iwi Māori me te iwi Pākehā i ngā tau tōmua. He tauhokohoko te mahi a te Māori ki ngā kaiaru tohorā, kēkeno hoki; ki ngā mihingare mō ngā rawa me ngā pū i hiahiatia. I te pakari haere o te taupori Pākeha, ka riro mā ngā tāngata Māori te nuinga o ngā kai hei hoko mā te rahinga o ngā taone ka mutu te whakatipu tōpata eka rau nei me te huawhenua; te mahi muka harakeke me ētahi atu rawa hei mahi mā te Pākehā.

He hoko mā runga waka, mā runga hoki i ō rātou poti rewa maha tā te Māori hoko atu i ā rātou rawa i ngā taone o te takiwā, waihoki te hokotai o ngā kai me ngā rawa ki Poipiripi, ki Poihākena pū, tatū atu rā ki te whenua pāmamao o Amerika hoki. Ko te mahi ā-hāpori nei a te Māori o ngā rauemi tauhokohoko, hoko rānei me ngā pūtea hokohoko tērā i whakaū i te oranga tonutanga o ngā whānau, ngā hapū me ngā iwi.

I te tōmuatanga o te tau 1900 i rerekē te āhua o te herenga tangata o te Māori me te Pākehā. Nō mua noa atu i taua tau ka mutu ai ngā pakanga i waenganui i ngā iwi nei heoi anō te pānga o te hekenganui a te Pākehā ki te Māori ērā nā reira i raru ai te hauora, me te oranga tonutanga o te Māori. 

Nā ngā tahumaero kōkuhu, nā te whakatāuke i te Māori i tōna tūrangawaewae, i āna rawa, i tōna ahurea, ka heke haere te taupori Māori i te taupori Pākehā e piki haere ana.

Te taupori Māori, te taupori Pākehā i waenganui i ngā tau 1800-1911

1800 - 100,000-120,000 tāngata Māori/tokoiti iho i te 1,000 tāngata Pākehā

1840 - 70,000-90,000 tāngata Māori/kei te takiwā o te 2,000 tāngata Pākehā

1860 - tōna rite te taupori Māori me te taupori Pākehā, kei te takiwā o te 60,000

1900 - 750,000 tāngata Pākehā/kei te takiwā o te 42,000 tāngata Māori

1911 - kei te takiwā o te 50,000 tāngata Māori/1000,000 tāngata Pākehā

Tatū atu rā ki te tau 1901 ka piki ake te taupori Māori, ka eke ki te 45,000. He pūtake maha e whai pānga ana ki te piki haere o ngā nama nei:

  • Nā te moe a te Māori ki te Pākehā ka kaha ake te ātete a te Māori i te pānga o ngā tahumaero kōkuhu.
  • Nā ngā kaupapa here me ngā mahi i whakatinanahia e ngā kaitōrangapū Māori pērā i a Tā Turi Carroll, i a Te Rangi Hīroa, i  a Apirana Ngata, i a Māui Pōmare hoki.
  • Nā te mahi whakaako, whakaora anō hoki o ngā tāngata Māori e ngā tapuhi Māori i ngā takiwā ki tuawhenua.
  • Nā te whakapeto ngoi a te hunga pēnei i a Te Puea, i a Rua Kenana, i ngā rangatira i tua atu anō kia piki te ora o te iwi Māori.

E whakaaturia ana i tēnei kauwhata ngā huringa o te taupori Māori me te taupori Pākehā mai i te tau 1840 neke mai - Te Taupori Māori/Pākehā(external link)

Te kirirarautanga Māori i Aotearoa

Haere noa ngā mahi tāmi a te pūnaha tōrangapū o Niu Tīreni i te ahurea Māori, i te reo Māori, i te oranga anō hoki o te Māori i te huatakitanga o te rautau 1900. He rite tonu te pānga o te mate ki te Māori i ngā āhuatanga o te whai ora, o te whai whare, o te whai mahi  ka mutu, ka tohe kia ōrite te whai mana o tō rātou kirirarautanga ki tērā o te hāpori Pākehā.

Mau ana te titiro a te Pākehā ki te Māori o taua wā. Ki tā te Pākehā he kiko whakarawaka te Māori, e kaha ana te haurangi, e tīwekaweka ana ngā whare ka mutu, ka māmā te pānga o te māuiui ki a rātou.

He maha ngā pūtake nā reira i hua mai ai ēnei tū waiaro:

  • Te hanga wawe o te whakanoho whenua a te Pākehā.
  • Te kūare o te Pākehā ki ngā uaratanga ahurea, me te oranga o te Māori.
  • Te hanganga ā-kōmaka whai rawa, te ahurea me ngā waiaro kaikiri o te Pākehā, ērā i haria mai i Ingarangi, i whenua kē.
  • Te whakatinanatanga o te tāmitanga e te kāwanatanga tau atu, tau atu.
  • Ngā tirohanga matatahi me ngā mātauranga i kawea e ngā mihingare me ngā kaiako.
  • Te matapiko o ngā kaihoko whenua Pākehā, pēnei i te New Zealand Company, e whakawhere māminga ana i te kāwanatanga me ngā whakaaro o te tūmatanui kia riro i a rātou ngā painga.
  • Te whakatipu i te pōhēhē horihori nei o te Māori ki tana rangatiratanga me tana āheinga.

Te whakaako i te iwi Māori

Tā Turi Kara (Sir James Carroll).

Tā Turi Kara (Sir James Carroll). Kāore i te mōhiotia ko wai te kaihopu whakaahua, ca 1900-1926. Alexander Turnbull Library. 1/2-050150-F Apirana Turupa Ngata. Kāore i te mōhiotia ko wai te kaihopu whakaahua, ca 1905. Alexander Turnbull Library. 35mm-00094-D-F Te Rangi Hīroa (Peter Henry Buck). Kāore i te mōhiotia ko wai te kaihopu whakaahua, ca 1909. Alexander Turnbull Library. 35mm-00094-e-F Tā Maui Wiremu Piti Naera Pomare, nā S P Andrews 1912. Alexander Turnbull Library. 1/1-014583-G

Nā te ngākaunui o te Māori ki te whakapono karaitiana i kawea mai e ngā mihingare ki Aotearoa i mātau ai ngā tāngata Māori ki te pānui, ki te tuhituhi hoki i te reo Pākehā me te reo Māori i ngā tau tōmua o te raraunga mai o te iwi Pākehā. Ka eke ki te tau 1842 ko te rahinga o te iwi Māori, tekau ki te toru tekau tau te pakeke, he pānui, he tuhituhi Māori ka mutu, he matatau ake tō rātou reo matatini i tō te reo matatini o te taupori ehara i te tangata Māori. I taua tau tonu, ka whakaputaina ai te niupepa reo Māori tuatahi, ‘Ko te Karere o Niu Tireni’.

Nā te Ture Kura Taketake i te tau 1867, i whakatauria ai ko te reo Pākehā anake te reo e whakaaetia ana kia whakaakona. I mua i tēnei whakaturetanga ko te reo Māori me te reo Pākehā i te kōrerohia, i te pānuihia, i te tuhia hoki. Nō te tau 1894 whakaturetia ai te ako i te kura mā ngā tamariki Māori katoa, ā, nō te tōmuatanga o te rau tau 1900 ka aukatihia te kōrero i te reo Māori i ngā kura. E iwa tekau ōrau o ngā tamariki Māori e kōrero Māori ana i te tau 1913, ka haere te wā ka hua mai he whakapaparanga anō ko te reo tuatahi o ngā tamariki Māori ko te reo Pākehā kē. Ka eke ki ngā tau o waenganui ki ngā tau tōmuri o te rau tau 1900 ka kitea te wheroku haeretanga o te matatau ki te reo Māori.

“Mate atu he tētēkura, ara mai he tētēkura” - Te whakatupuranga hou

Nō te ekenga o ngā tau tōmuri o te rau tau 1800 i hua mai ai tētahi whakatupuranga rangatira Māori, he ākonga i ākona ki te mātauranga Pākehā, i puta i ngā kura tuarua Māori pēnei i Te Aute, i haere hoki ki ngā whare wānanga o te wā.

He rata a Te Rangi Hīroa (Peter Buck) i puta ki te pakanga tuatahi o te ao, ā, nāwai rā ka noho hoki hei kaiaromātai i te tangata me ōna āhuatanga, me ōna māturanga katoa. Ko Maui Pomare hoki tēnā, he rata i karore tahi i te motu me Te Rangi Hīroa ki te tirotiro i ngā kāinga Māori, ki te tuku kupu akiaki, kupu āki me te kupu whakatenatena hoki i ngā rangatira ā-takiwā kia pai ake te noho ora a te iwi Māori. Whāia ko Apirana Ngata, he rōia whai mana, i takahi i ngā takahanga a James Carroll me āna mahi whakarite ture whenua me ngā tukanga e taea ai e te tangata Māori ōna whenua te ahu me āna ake rauemi te whakawhanake. Nō muri mai whakarauora anō ai e Apirana Ngata ngā toi a te Māori me te kapa haka hei hāpai i te mana o te Māori, hei pupuri hoki i āna tikanga. Nā ngā mahi nui a ngā rangatira nei te iwi Māori i puta ki te ora i ngā matarahurahu i ata mai i te huringa o te rau tau.

Te ōhanga o te iwi Māori

Ka eke ki ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900 he mea whakahoro te mana whenua me te rangatiratanga o te Māori i ōna whenua me āna rawa katoa. I rerekē mārika nei te ora o te Māori i tētahi wā poto noa iho nei. Ko te mātotorutanga o te whenua Māori i riro ki te Pākehā, ki te kāwangatanga hoki. I te takiwā o te rua miriona eka te whenua i te ringa o te iwi Māori i te tau 1920, ā, i tata rua tekau mā rima miriona i te ringa o te Pākehā. He mate kino i pā ki te hauora me te toiora tangata o te Māori i te rirohanga o ōna whenua. Horomia katoatia te āheinga a te Māori ki ngā rawa māori, ki ngā rongoā, ki te whakatipu me te kohikohi kai, ki ngā tūāhuatanga katoa hoki o tōna oranga i ngā ture, i te rawakore, i ngā mate urutā me te whakapono o te Pākehā.

Ka mārakerake te kitea i ēnei kauwhata te panonitanga i te huringa o te wā o te tino rangatiratanga o te Māori me ōna whenua:

Te makeretanga o te whenua Māori i Te Ika a Māui(external link)(external link)

Te makeretanga o te whenua Māori i Te Waipounamu(external link)(external link)

Kakapi katoa te ahurea tauhokohoko i mōhiotia ki te iwi Māori ki te ahurea ōhanga ko tōna tūāpapa he moni, he utu. I mate ngā tāngata Māori ki te turuki i ā rātou mahi aru kai, hī ika, hauhake māra tūturu hoki nei me ngā ara whai ora rerekē. Ko ētahi tāngata Māori i huri ki ngā tū mahi tūao, hei kaimahi rānei i ngā kapa kutikuti hipi, i ngā wheketere patu mīti, ā, ko tōna hua ko te noho wehe o aua kaimahi rā i ō rātou whānau, i ō rātou mahinga kai hoki. Ko te rahinga o te iwi Māori i noho ki tuawhenua i noho ā-whānau, i ahu hoki i ngā whenua pakupaku nei kia ora ai rātou.

Te hauora o te Māori

Nā ngā mate urutā pēnei i the Taipō, te Mate-kohi me te Rewharewha ērā nā reira i raru pai ai te iwi Māori i ngā tau o te rau tau 1800, i ngā tau tōmua hoki o te rau tau 1900. Ko te rewharewha urutā i te tau 1918 tēnā nā reira i mate ai te takimiriona tāngata puta noa i te ao, te kotahi mano tāngata Māori, arā ia te 4% o te taupori. He mea whakapono e ētahi i kawea mai te mate urutā nei e ngā hōia i hoki mai i te pakanga. E whitu whakareanga iho te auau o te mate i te Pākehā i ēnei mate urutā i ō te auau o te mate o te Māori.

He nui ake ngā kai kōkuhu i ngā kai tūturu i whakatipuria, i kohikohia rānei i te whenua, i ngā awa me te moana. Ko te rirohanga o te whenua me te whai wāhitanga o te Māori ki ōna pātaka kai tūturu nei i whai pānga ki te kino haere o te hauora me te oranga tonutanga o te Māori. E whakaaturia ana i konei tētahi kauwhata e tohu ana i te ora me te roa o te oranga o te Māori - Te matapae oranga i te whānautanga mai o te tangata Māori (external link)(external link)

Nā te Ture Kaunihera Māori o te tau 1900 i hua mai ai ngā kaunihera Māori i ia rohe, ko tana aronga nui, ko te hauora o ngā tāngata Māori i tōna rohe. I whakaritea, i taunakitia ēnei kaunihera e Apirana Ngata rātou ko Maui Pomare, ko Te Rangi Hīroa i ngā kaunihera e whakamahiti korou ana ki te tuku ratonga hauora, ratonga mātauranga me te manaaki hoki i te iwi Māori heoi anō i hinga i ētahi wā i torutoru noa iho nei o ngā rawa i wātea ki a rātou.

Nā Maui Pomare te whakaaratanga o te kaupapa Tapuhi Taketake. He tapuhi nō te iwi Māori me te iwi Pākehā i noho hei kaihāpai i ngā mahi hauora i ngā whaitua mamao kāore i torohia e ngā rata.

Archives New Zealand / Te rua mahara ō te Kāwanatanga

Ko ngā rata Pākehā i whai wāhi ki ngā tāngata Māori i noho mamao i utua e te kāwanatanga, ā, nā rātou anō hoki ētahi rongoā i whakarato ki ngā kura mō ngā ākonga. Hoto ana te titiro a te Māori ki ngā hōhipera Pākehā ka mutu, te kūare o ngā rata me ngā tapuhi ki ngā tikanga a te Māori.

Ngā tohunga Māori

He māori tonu te mahi a te tohunga Māori i ngā hapori Māori i ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900. Horokukū ana te whai a te Māori i ngā hōtaka hauora i tua atu nā te mea i whai pānga aua hōtaka ki te kāwanatanga. Koia te āhua i puta i te rohe o Taranaki me te rohe o Waikato i muri mai i te mahi raupatu whenua i hua mai i te taunga o ngā pakanga e kīia nei ko Ngā Pakanga o Niu Tīreni. I te rohe hoki o Te Urewera, i kōkiritia e te poropiti, e Rua Kenana tana kōwhiringa ki te whakaora i ngā tāngata Māori herekore nei i te kāwanatanga me ngā kaunihera Māori. Me uaua ka whai hua te tohunga i tana tohe ki ngā mate urutā kōkuhu me ngā rongoā Māori, ā, ka puta ngā amuamu i ngā kaihāpai hauora whai mana he mōrearea kē ngā mahi whakaora a ngā tohunga.

I te tau 1907 ka whai mana te Ture Pēpēhi Tohunga. He mea tautoko tēnei ture e te tokomaha kaiarahi Māori rātou ko ngā kaitōrangapū Māori hoki. Ko te tikanga ia mā tēnei ture ngā mahi a te tohunga, i kīia ai he mahi kikino, he tauporo.

Te hauora o ngā tamariki

E rua ngā ture i kōkiritia e te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa nā reira i pā te kino ki ngā whaea e whāngai ana i ā rātou pēpi ki te waiū. Ko te tuatahi, ko te Ture Kōhungahunga o te tau 1908. Ko tana mahi he rāhui i te whāngai waiū ki te pēpi mēnā rā kua roa ake i te whitu rā e whāngaihia ana hāunga te hunga whakaangi. Ko te tuarua, ko te Ture Whenua Māori o te tau 1909, ā, nāna i poro te tikanga a te Māori ki te whāngai tamariki o whaea kē. He mea whakahoro ēnei ture e rua i ngā tikanga tūturu a te Māori mō te wāhi ki te whāngai waiū ki ngā tamariki ehara i a te kaiwhāngai, arā, he tamaiti nā whaea kē heoi anō he kiritahi tonu, nā reira i pā ai te kino ki te hauora o ngā kōhungahunga Māori.

E whakaaturia ana i tēnei kauwhata te matahua o ngā wāhine Māori i ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900 - Te Matahua o ngā Wahine Māori(external link) 

Tāmaki Pātaka Kōrero nā tētahi kaihopu whakaahua.

Tāmaki Pātaka Kōrero nā tētahi kaihopu whakaahua. Kāore i te mōhiotia ko wai te kaihopu,1908. Te Kohinga Motuhake nā Tā George Grey. Kei Te Whare Pukapuka o Tāmakimakaurau tēnei whakaahua e purutia ana. 7-A12343

Te ahi kā

I te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao ka kaha ake te pīrangitia o ngā hua o ngā pāmu o Aotearoa ki te whāngai i ngā hōia. Nā reira i tipu te hiahia o te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa ki te whakawātea i ētahi atu whenua Māori mō te ahuwhenua te take. Nā Apirana Ngata ngā kōkiritanga a te kāwanatanga i whakatinana.  Maringanui tonu ana ngā uri o Apirana Ngata i te āhua o tō rātou pupuru tonu ki ētahi whenua rahi nei, ā, nā ngā mahi tautoko a Ngata i huri ai ēnei whenua hei pāmu whai rawa. 

Tatū atu rā ki te tau 1916 ko Ngāti Porou tērā i noho hei kaipupuru pāmu me ngā pūrere e whai take ana, ā, e 181,000 ngā hipi i aua pāmu. Nā Ngata ngā iwi o waho atu o Ngāti Porou i akiaki ki te whakatōpū i ngā whenua i te puritia tonutia e rātou kia huri hei pāmu, kia whai mahi anō hoki.

Ko Te Puea Herangi tērā i mahi tahi ki a Ngata ki te whakahuihui i ngā whenua o tōna ake iwi kia pērā i a Ngata te mahi. I niwhaniwha te whai a Ngata kia mātua kitea te pūkenga, te rangatiratanga me te āhua whakahaere a te Māori i roto i ngā mahi ahuwhenua ōrite tonu nei ki te angitu a te Pākehā i tēnei mahi.

I mahi tahi hoki a Te Puea rāua ko Apirana Ngata i aua tau ki te whakarauora i ngā mahi toi a te Māori. He whare tīpuna huhua i hangaia, i tāraia hoki. He waiata i titoa, i waiatatia hoki. He nui te whai wāhi o ngā mahi toi i roto i ngā mahi tūhonohono anō i te iwi Māori ki ōna tikanga, ki tōna wairuatanga, ki tōna whānau i te wā o te rawakore, o te mate urutā, o te mate waipiro o te iwi Māori o taua wā rā. I whakatūwherahia tētahi kura whakairo i Rotorua i te tau 1927 i raro i te marumaru o te ture Ngā Toi a te Māori. I whakatūwherahia tētahi kura anō e pēnei ana te rite e Te Puea ki roto o Ngāruawāhia.

I haere tonu ngā mahi tāmi a te kāwanatanga i te Māori mā roto mai i ngā mahi hoko whenua i te tangata Māori kāore i a ia te pūtea ki te whanake i tōna whenua. Kei te takiwā o te 1,000,000 heketā te nui o te whenua i hokona ki te karauna i waenganui i te tau 1911 ki te tau 1921 me te aha, ka tawhiti atu te whai wāhi a te Māori ki ngā mahi ōhanga mōna ake.

Ka urupā te pakanga, ka hoki ngā ika a Whiro ki te kāinga. Ka riro i ngā ika a Whiro Pākehā he whenua wātea hei ahunga mōna engari anō ngā ika a Whiro Māori. Ka riro kē i a rātou he wāhanga o tētahi whenua i reira kē te tangata Māori e ahuahu ana.

I te korenga o te tokomaha tāne i te wā o te pakanga i noho ko ngā wāhine Māori, ngā tamariki, ngā tāne pāhake me ngā pēperekou hei kaimahi, hei kaitiaki. Ka riro mā ngā wāhine Māori me ngā taiohi ngā tū mahi katoa hei whakatutuki, hei whakatipu tonu i ā rātou tamariki. I noho wātea ngā whānau i noho mamao ki ngā raruraru katoa i heipū atu arā ia, ko ngā kai i whakatipuria e rātou ngā kai i wātea ki a rātou ka tahi, ka rua ko ngā mahi whai pūtea tūao anake ngā mahi o te wā.  I noho takatāpui ētahi tokorua kia pai ai tā rātou whakatutuki tahi i ngā haepapa whakatipu i te whānau i te mātotorutanga o te pakoko a te tangata i te korenga o te kai, i te pōhara anō hoki. 

  • Ti
  • Tāngia.
  • Tiritiria.

Kaiako' Notes

He whakatakinga tēnei kohinga pārongo ki ngā tirohanga me ngā hononga a tangata kē ki te iwi Māori i mua mai, i te wā tonu, i muri mai hoki i te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. Ka torohia:

·       Te āhua o te kāwanatanga i Aotearoa ki te iwi Māori.

·       Ngā waiaro o tangata kē ki te iwi Māori i taua wā rā.

·       Ngā pānga o ngā kaupapa here, ngā ture, te rirohanga whenua me te ora hoki o te Māori.

·       Te pakari haere o te iwi Māori i a ia e whai ora ana i muri mai i te hekenga taupori i pā ki a rātou.

·       Te pānga o te pakanga ki ngā tāngata Māori i mahue iho.

Tīkina ake.

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Blomfield, W, 1866-1938 :[Postcard] Samoa yielded without a struggle / Observer Print. [1914].

Blomfield, W, 1866-1938 :[Postcard] Samoa yielded without a struggle /...

Shows cartoon of a Samoan maiden leaning on the shoulder of a New Zealand soldier on a Samoan beach. A...

Lloyd, Trevor 1863-1937 :[Some impressions at the Auckland Society of Arts annual exhibition. April 1907]

Lloyd, Trevor 1863-1937 :[Some impressions at the Auckland Society of...

Twenty-two comic versions of paintings some Maori, some Pakeha. The central image is a parody of a Goldie portrait: "A...

Lloyd, Trevor 1863-1937 :[Caricatures of New Zealand life. Our comic artist's impressions of the Auckland Society of Arts annual exhibition, May 1908]

Lloyd, Trevor 1863-1937 :[Caricatures of New Zealand life. Our comic...

A set of vignettes, supposedly representing pictures shown at the Auckland Society of Arts. The central view, a caricature of...

Lloyd, Trevor, 1863-1937 : Maori life. At home in the smart set / Harding and Billing's Post Cards. [1910-1920s].

Lloyd, Trevor, 1863-1937 : Maori life. At home in the...

Shows the interior of a Maori home, with the father trying to wash his screaming child in a pan on...

Lloyd, Trevor 1863-1937 :[Scenes of Maori life. Game of tennis inside a pa. 1914] A mighty smash.

Lloyd, Trevor 1863-1937 :[Scenes of Maori life. Game of tennis...

A Maori woman smashing a tennis racket down over the shoulders of an elderly Maori man, with whom she has...

Lloyd, Trevor, 1863-1937 :Returning from the Land Court / Auckland, Frank Duncan & Co., [1920s?]

Lloyd, Trevor, 1863-1937 :Returning from the Land Court / Auckland,...

Cartoon showing a fat Maori man in top hat and waistcoat on a broken-down horse, followed by his wife and...

Lloyd, Trevor, 1863-1937 :

Lloyd, Trevor, 1863-1937 :"Kiss me" / Harding and Billing's Post...

Shows head and shoulders portrait of young Maori woman with mouth puckered in expectation of a kiss. She wears a...