Te torohū i te pānga o tēnei mea te pakanga


Te whakatutu puehu a te Māori


Ki te whakaaro ake tātou ki te ōrokotīmatanga mai o tēnei tūāhuatanga o te pakanga ka toko ake te whakaaro mō Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku me te pakanga i tū i te wā o tō rāua wehenga tae rawa atu ki ngā āhuatanga i pā ki a rāua, nā ā rāua tamariki tonu, i muri mai i tō rāua wehenga. He mea tuku iho tēnei tūāhuatanga puta noa i tēnā atua o tēnā iwi, i tēnā tipua o tēnā tangata taketake hurihuri te ao.

bloomfield

I mua i te pānga mai o tauiwi i noho ko ngā mātāpono, ngā kawa me ngā tikanga a te iwi Māori hei tūāpapa ora mā rātou. He mea whakatīna ngā atua Māori, ngā wairua, ngā kaitiaki ka mutu, ngā āhuatanga o te kauae runga e ngā tāngata Māori o taua wā.

Ko Tūmatauenga te atua o runga mō ētahi iwi, ā, ko ēnei iwi i mōhiotia whānuitia mō tō rātou toa ki te whawhai. Mō te hunga whakatipu kai, me te hunga whakahohou i te rongo ko Rongomātāne, ko Haumietiketike rānei hei atua nui mō rātou.

Tūkariri, Tūkaniwha, Tūkaitaua - Te whawhai a te Māori

Tukuna iho ā-wahatia ai ngā paki huhua e pā ana ki te whawhai a te iwi Māori i mua i te hekenga nui ki Aotearoa. I Aotearoa nei he nui ngā take ā-noho, ngā take ā-ahurea nā reira i whawhai ai tētahi iwi ki tētahi atu, tētahi hapū ki tētahi atu. Ko te tohe tongi whenua tētahi take ā-noho, ko te hiahia hoki ki ngā rawa taiao tētahi atu anō take ā-noho ka mutu, te tokomaha o te tangata kei tētahi whaitua e noho ana.

Ko ngā take ā-ahurea i pakanga ai te Māori he hua o te rerekē o ngā whakaaro o tētahi ki ngā mātāpono, ngā tikanga, te mana me te tapu anō hoki. Inā puta tētahi whakaaro e takahi ana i te mana, i ngā tikanga, i ngā tapu rānei o tētahi tangata, o tētahi hapū, o tētahi iwi rānei ka huri te tangata, te huinga tangata rānei kua takahia ki te whai utu, ki te ngaki i te takahanga, ko te pakanga te otinga.

He rerekē tō te iwi Māori kawe tohe i mua i te taenga mai o tauiwi. He mea tuku ō te iwi Māori whakapono katoa ki ngā atua, ki ngā kaitiaki Māori. He tukanga i āta whāia kia mātua te tapu me ngā kawa e tika ana i te wā o te whakarite tore kai huruhuru ki te whawhai. Katoa ngā toa ki te whawhai he pononga nō Tūmatauenga, ā, he tikanga e tika ana kia whāia e rātou i a rātou e whakarite ana ki te whawhai. Hei tauira, kāore i whakaaetia e ētahi te kai, te ai rānei kia noho tapu tonu.

Ka riro mā ngā āhuatanga o te taiao te kawenga o te whawhai e tohu. Ka kaha te puta o te iwi ki te whawhai i ngā marama o te raumati, i te wā o te mātotorutanga. Kāore te iwi Māori e kaha puta ki te whawhai i te Hōtoke, i ngā pātaka kai e tūpuhi ana. I ētahi wā ka whakarērea te pakanga e tētahi iwi ki te hoki ki te kumanu i tana māra kai, ki te tiki atu he kai anō, ki te kohikohi ngao kia rite anō ai ki te whawhai. Mā te whakaae a te iwi i whakarērea rātou anō ka mana ake ai.

Nō te ohinga mai, whakangungua ai ngā tamatāne ki ngā mahi a te toa. Ka pakeke haere ka kaha ake ngā mahi whakangungu. He mea akiaki ngā mahi haka, ngā ngohe, te mau rākau, te whiu poi, te mamau me ētahi atu whakaharatau e ngā mātāpūputu, e ngā pakeke hoki o te iwi.

Whakangungua ai ngā kōhine hoki ki ngā mahi a te toa, ki ngā mahi awhikiri i runga i te mōhio ka ora te tangata ka mutu te iwi i ēnei tū pūkenga.

Ko te whawhai takitini ā-ope taua nei te hanga o te whawhai a te Māori. Ko te whakaharatau haka tētahi ara whakangungu i te ope taua kia kōtahi ai te tū te take. He pai hoki te haka hei whakahihiko i te hinengaro me te tinana ki te takatū ki te whawhai. Ko tā te haka he whakaihi i ngā toa i mua mai i te whawhai ka tahi, hei whakatara ake i te hoariri. I te taunga o te riri, i te mutunga o te pakanga tukuna atu anō ai te haka e te ope taua i toa hei whakaū i tōna angitutanga.

Ko ngā rākau o te riri o te wā ko te taiaha, te tao, te tewhatewha, te pouwhenua, te patu me te mere. Katoa ngā rākau o te riri i whakamahia i ngā riri. I te wā o te toa, i tangohia ngā rākau a ngā rangatira, i riro rānei ngā rākau i te wā tonu o te pakanga i ngā hoariri whai mana. Kua hia waiata, kua hia paki kua titoa, kua waiatatia, kua kōrerohia e wai rānei he mea tuku iho ki ōna uri o te iwi.

He kapa toa e haka ana nā William Strutt, ca. 1855. Alexander Turnbull Library.

He kapa toa e haka ana nā William Strutt, ca. 1855. Alexander Turnbull Library. E-453-f-001

Ngā hononga o te Māori me te Pākehā i te taunga o te riri

I te tōmuatanga o te rau tau 1900 tau ai ngā pakanga i waenganui i te iwi Pākehā me te iwi Māori, heoi anō ngā mamaetanga me te wairua kore whakapono i mau tonu. Nōhia ai ngā whenua tuawhenua e te rahinga o ngā tāngata Māori o te wā, ā, i mōhiotia e te hunga kaumātua o taua wā rā ngā piki me ngā heke o ngā pakanga whenua o te rau tau o mua. Nō ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900 huri ai te iwi Pākehā ki te whakaū i tana tū rangatira i tōna tāmi i te iwi Māori mā te muru whenua, te whakauru karaitiana, te whakauru ture, me ngā kaupapa here o te iwi Pākehā nā ēnei i noho matua ai ngā hiahia o te Pākehā, ngā rerenga kētanga o te hunga whai mahi, te hunga ako, te tokoiti whai rawa me te hunga pākihi.

Te āhua o tā te Māori uru ki te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao

Nō te pakarutanga mai o te pakanga i Ūropi i te tau 1914 whakaūngia ai te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa tana tautoko haumi nei i ōna whenua āpiti, arā, ko te katoa o Piritana, ko Rūhia, ko Wīwī (ko Paranihi) hoki i a rātou e pakanga ana ki Tiamani, ki Ateria, ki Hanekari. I te tīmatanga kāore ngā tāngata taketake pēnei i ngā tāngata Māori i whakaaetia hei kaikawe i te riri i te pakanga. Ko te take i pēnei ai, ko te pōhēhē o ngā rangatira o te ao o taua wā, ka tere te huri o ngā iwi taketake ki te pakanga ki ngā iwi nā rātou te iwi taketake i tāmi, ko te hiahia rānei o ngā hōia Māori kia ōrite katoa tōna mana ki tērā o te hōia Pākehā.

Nō taua wā hoki whakapā atu ai ngā rangatira o ētahi o ngā iwi puta noa ki ō rātou mema paremata ā-rohe me te tono ki a Te Rangihiroa nō Te Tai Tokerau; a Apirana Ngata nō Te Tai Rāwhiti; a Māui Pōmare nō Te Tai Hauāuru; a Taare Parata o Te Waipounamu kia whakaaetia tā te taiohi Māori uru ki te pakanga ko te hāpai i tō tōna iwi mana ake te take, me te kawe hoki i te whawhai ki ngā hoariri. Ko tā ngā mema Māori titiro ki te pakanga me te whai wāhitanga o te Māori – kia tū tahi rātou ki te pakanga kia kitea e te Pākeha te ōrite o tō te Māori haere ki te pakanga.   

Hīkaka katoa ana ngā taitamatāne o te wā rā ki te wehe atu i ō rātou kāinga, i ō rātou marae hoki ki te whawhai i tētahi pakanga ka tahi, ki te haere ki whenua mamao ka rua. Heoi anō, kīhai ngā tono a te iwi Māori me ōna mema paremata kia haere hōia atu ngā tāngata Māori i whakaaetia e ngā kaikawe riri Ūropi, e te Kāwana Tianara hoki o te wā. 

E rua ngā tirohanga ki te pakanga nā reira i mawehe ai te iwi Māori. Tērā ētahi iwi i kaha tautoko i te whakaaro kia haere hōia atu ngā tāne o ō rātou iwi i runga i te whakaaro mā tēnā ka ōrite te mana o te iwi Māori ki tērā o te iwi Pākehā, e ai ki tā te Pākehā titiro. Waihoki te whakaaro ki te kore te iwi Māori e haere ki te pakanga kua takahia e rātou te mana o ō rātou tīpuna toa. 

Tērā ētahi kaiārahi i te ao Māori kāore i whakaae ki te pakanga ka mutu te tautoko i ōna tāngata e hiahia ana ki te uru hei hōia. Ko Te Puea Herangi o te iwi o Tainui tētahi, ko Rua Kenana o te iwi o Tūhoe tētahi atu. Nā te kupu taurangi i puta i a Kīngi Tāwhiao i muri mai i te otinga o ngā pakanga i waenganui i te iwi Māori me te iwi Pākehā e kī ana, “Kāore te toto e rere anō ā haere ake nei”, kāore a Te Puea i whakaae kia haere hōia atu ngā tāne o Waikato. I te take hoki i kaha te tāmia o te iwi Māori e te iwi Pākehā nō rātou e muru whenua ana. 

I puta hoki i a Te Puea ētahi kupu e pā ana ki ngā pānui whakatenatena i te hunga e hiahia ana ki te pakanga i te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, ‘Mō te Kīngi, mō te whenua’, i kīia rā, “Kei te pai noa iho tēnā. He kīngi tō mātou heoi anō he whenua, korekau. He mea muru ō mātou whenua. Kia whakahokia mai ngā whenua kātahi mātou ka whakaarohia anō te take”. (Nō roto mai i te pukapuka, Te Puea: A Life, nā Michael King.)

Whakapuakihia ai tana kore i whakaae ki te ture e meatia ana me uru atu ngā tāne autaia ki te pakanga i āna titonga pēnei i 'E huri rā koe', 'Kāti nei e te iwi te kumekume roa', me 'Ngā rā o Hune ka ara te pakanga’.

Te Kirihaehae Te Puea Herangi, nā William Price, nō te rau tau 1900. Alexander T

Te Kirihaehae Te Puea Herangi, nā William Price, nō te rau tau 1900. Alexander Turnbull Library. 1/2-001920-G

Ki tā te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa, he whakatumatuma, he kaikaiwaiūtanga hoki tana tū ki te Karauna nā reira i whakaturetia ai te tū o ngā tāngata o ngā iwi o Waikato hei kaikawe riri mā Aotearoa.

"He mea tūwhakaatia te ture i meatia me uru ngā iwi o Waikato ki te pakanga. I tēnei whakatau ka whakaūngia te mānatunatu o te Māori e kīia ana he iwi matarua te iwi Pākehā. Inā koa te whakaū me noho pono te iwi Māori ki ia āhuatanga o te ture ka tahi, ka rua te whakaū anō kei te Pākehā te mana whakatau mō hea ū ai, mō hea panoni ai hoki ngā ture i runga noa i ōna hiahia&" (Nō roto mai i te pukapuka, Te Puea: A Life, nā Michael King.)

The spirit of his fathers,  William Blomfield, 1915.

The spirit of his fathers, William Blomfield, 1915. NZ Cartoon Archive. Alexander Turnbull Library. A-312-1-088

I akiaki te Kāwanatanga i ngā iwi o Waikato, o Tūhoe anō hoki ki te tahuri mai ki te uru poka noa atu ki te kapa hōia mā te mirimiri i tōna mana, me tōna hōnoretanga. Nā Apirana Ngata tētahi waiata i tito ko tōna pūkate he whakaatu i ngā ekenga taumata o ngā Māori i tae atu ki te pakanga hei hōia me te whakaatu i te hiahia kia tokomaha ake ngā hōia. Koinei taua waiata, ‘Te Ope Tuatahi’

I te tau 1916, ka toro hāngai atu te Minita mō ngā take Waonga o Aotearoa ki ngā tāngata Māori o Waikato kia: “Tiakina a Aotearoa kei hinga i a Paratiamu ka mutu ō tātou wāhine kei riro hei takawairore mā ngā Tiamana.“

“Ki te hinga koutou i tēnei wā tonu, ka whakamā ō iwi i a koe i ngā rangi kei mua i te aroaro”.

I te taenga atu o Māui Pōmare ki tētahi hui i tū ki te pā ki Waahi i te tau 1918 i rere tētahi haka kaioraora i te āhua o tana haerenga atu. Mutu ana, ka whakaoti atu me te whakapohane.

Torutoru noa iho nei ngā uri o Tainui i mau i ngā kara o te hōia, kāore hoki ēnei i tere ki tāwāhi. Eke ana te tau 1919 e 74 anake o te 552 katoa ngā tāngata Māori i tonoa ki te whakaharatau i karangahia ki te pakanga. I te otinga o te pakanga i tukuna katoatia ngā tāngata i te whakaharatau tonu ki ō rātou kāinga, i mukua hoki ngā hāmenetanga o te hunga i karangahia engari kāore i puta. Ko te wāhi ki ngā tāngata i mauheretia i te korenga o rātou i puta ki te whakaharatau kē nā reira i raru ai te kāwanatanga. Ahakoa kīhai ngā rangatira o ngā kapa whawhai i whakaae, i whakatauhia e te kāwanatanga i te marama o Mei i te tau 1919 kia tukuna ngā mauhere nei kia wātea.

Ko ērā tāngata kāore tonu i whakaae ki te tū hei hōia i kīia he kaikaiwaiū. Māori mai, Pākehā atu, i mauheretia, i tūkinotia hoki i ngā whareherehere. I te rahinga o te wā he parāoa, he waimāori anake hei kai mā te tinana ka mutu, i whiua rātou me ngā mahi whakarīrā me te aha anō, ka mauheretia anō mēnā kīhai tonu rātou i whakaae ki te tū hei hōia.

  • TT
  • Tāngia.
  • Tiritiria.

Kaiako' Notes

He whakatakinga tēnei mā ngā ākonga ki ngā pakanga i tū i waenganui i ngā iwi o ngā tāngata taketake o Aotearoa, o te iwi Māori, i mua i te taenga mai o tauiwi. He whakamahukitanga anō hoki ki ngā pānga o te pū ki ngā rautaki pakanga a te Māori ka tahi, ka rua ki ngā take i whawhai ai ngā tāngata Māori ki a tauiwi.

E whai wāhi ana hoki i roto i tēnei rauemi ngā kōrero e pā ana ki ngā take i whakatauhia ai e ngā tāngata Māori kia tū rātou hei hōia i Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, me ngā take kāore hoki i whakaaetia tō rātou tū e ētahi o ngā rangatira o te ao Māori o taua wā rā.

Tīkina ake.

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