Ngā pānga o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao ki Taranaki


I te wā o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao i ngā tau 1914 - 1918 i ora tonu ētehi o ngā toa nō ngā  pakanga whenua i ngā tekau tau 1860 ki roto o Taranaki, ahakoa koroheke mai. Ka rongo tonu rātou ki ngā pēhitanga o te raupatu a te Kāwanatanga i ō rātou whenua tūpuna .

parihaka

Kātahi nei ko te tono a te Kāwanatanga kia haere ā rātou tama toa ki te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, ko te whawhai mō te karauna te take.

I tīmata te maringi mai a te Pākehā ki Taranaki i te tau 1841. Ko te pōhēhē he tūturu ngā kirimana hoko whenua i waenganui i a rātou me te New Zealand Settlements Company. Tērā te tinihanga o te kaiwhakahaere o taua kamupene, o Edward Gibbon Wakefield. Ka noho whenua kore aua Pākehā rā ki te pito o te tāone o Ngāmotu mō te rua tekau tau me tō rātou hiahia nui ki te whenua Māori huri noa i te maunga.

Nā tērā hiahia nui ka tū te riri ki Kohia Pā, ki Waitara i te 17 o Maehe 1860. Ka hoki mai a Tūmatauenga, a Tū-ka-riri, a Tū-ka-nguha, rātou tahi ko ngā atua o te kairākau, ko Maru, ko Uenuku me ōna rirohanga - he tangata, he maunu ki te pō. Koirā te tīmatanga o ngā pakanga whenua ki Aotearoa. Kotahi tau te roanga o taua pakanga tuatahi engari kāore e taea te kī i toa ngā hōia o te Kāwanatanga, o Taranaki rānei.

He pakanga anō i whai mai i te tau 1864 engari ehara i te mea nā te pakanga whenua i murua ai ngā whenua o Taranaki. I tōna mutunga, nā te pene kē, nā ngā ture o te Kāwanatanga i whakahau mai,

“He hoa riri koutou Māori mā. Nā tā koutou whawhai ki ngā hōia o te Kāwanatanga ka murua ō koutou whenua”.

Ko aua ture rā, ko te Suppression of Rebellion Act 1863 me te New Zealand Settlements Act 1863.

I te tau 1866 ka whakakorikoria ngā iwi o Taranaki e ngā poropiti, e Te Whiti o Rongomai rāua ko Tohu Kākahi kia rewahia te papakāinga o Parihaka. Ko tōna kaupapa he maungārongo, he rangimārie kia whakamutua rawatia te hau atu ki te mura o te ahi. Ko te take anō hoki kua noho whenua kore ngā iwi o Taranaki maunga nā te muru me te raupatu.

I roto i ngā 15 tau, tatū atu rā ki te tau 1881 ka muia mai ngā iwi o te motu ki runga o Parihaka ki te tautoko i ngā poropiti. Ko Waikato hoki tērā, i tae atu a Kīngi Tāwhiao, ka puta te kōrero mō ‘te kīwai kete’, kei a Waikato tētahi kīwai, kei a Taranaki tērā kīwai. Ko tētahi take anō i piri mai aua iwi rā kua whātoro atu te ringa o te Kāwanatanga, kua murua hoki ō rātou whenua.

I te tau 1881 i tukua e te Kāwanatanga āna hōia ki Parihaka i runga i ngā kōrero teka a Te Paraihe Minitā Māori o taua wā ki te Whare Pāremata. Ko tāna, ko te whakarite a Parihaka ki te hoki ki te mura o te ahi ahakoa he kupu rangimārie ngā kauhau o ngā poropiti.

I te ata o te rima o ngā rā o Noema 1881, i eke ai ngā hōia ki runga o Toroānui, ki te marae matua o Parihaka. Ka tukua e Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu ngā tamariki ki te haka pōhiri, ki te whiu poi me te whāngai i ngā hōia. Ki waenga i taua tira ko tētahi tamaiti e 6 ōna tau, ko tōna ingoa, ko Māui Wiremu Piti Naera Pōmare.

Māui Wiremu Piti Naera Pōmare

I whānau mai a Māui Pōmare i te tau 1875 i Pāhau Pā, ki Onaero, tata tonu ki Urenui. Ko ōna iwi ko Ngāti Mutunga rātou ko Te Atiawa, ko Ngāti Toa. I kuraina ia ki ngā kura ki Waitara, ki Wharekauri, ki Tāmaki Makaurau tae atu ki tōna kura tuarua, ki Te Aute. Kātahi ka haere ia ki Āmerika ki te whai i tāna tohu rata.

I te tau 1911 i uru ia ki te Pāremata o Aotearoa hei mema Māori mō Te Tai Hau-ā-uru. Ko ngā iwi i tautoko i a ia ko Waikato, ko Taranaki hoki. Ko tētahi tino kaupapa i whāia e ia ko ngā take whenua, ko te muru me te raupatu kua pēhi nei i aua iwi rā. Ko Kīngi Mahuta Te Wherowhero te Kīngi Māori i taua wā.

Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao

Kātahi ka tae ki te wā o Te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. Ko Pōmare tētahi i tino tautoko kia haere ngā toa Māori ki te pakanga mō te Karauna, kia tū pokohiwi ki te pokohiwi ki ngā hōia Pākehā. Ko tōna whāinga anō ko te whakahau i te iwi Māori ki te whai i ngā taonga a te Pākehā arā, ko te mātauranga, ko te reo Pākehā me te tuakiritanga i raro i te maru o te Karauna.

Ko te raruraru nui mōna, kāore te kīngi Māori, a Kīngi Te Rata i whakaae atu. I riro i a Te Rata te tūnga o tōna pāpā, o Kīngi Mahuta i tōna matenga i te tau 1912.  Ko tērā atu mana nui o te Kīngitanga, ko Te Puea Hērangi. Kāore rawa ia i whakaae atu ki te tuku i a Waikato ki te pakanga. Nāna te kī atu ki a Pōmare, ka kore rawa a Waikato e tautoko i tāna karanga ki te kore te Kāwanatanga e whakatika i ngā pēhitanga o te muru me te raupatu o ngā whenua tupuna.

Tērā a Pōmare e noho toimaha ana i tana hiahia kia rahi ake te nama o ngā hōia Māori e tukuna atu ana ki te Pakanga o te Ao. Ka kore rawa a Taranaki me Waikato e tuku i ō rātou toa ahakoa ko Pōmare tō rātou mema Pāremata.

Ka whakatutū puehu i runga o Tūrangawaewae i ngā tohe kōrero i waenga i a Pōmare me te Kīngitanga. I tōna mutunga, i a Te Puea te kupu whakakapi me tāna ki a Pōmare,

“He pakanga kiritea kē tērā, waiho mā ngā iwi kiritea”.

I te rere haere aua kōrero ki roto o Taranaki. Ahakoa i mate a Te Whiti o Rongomai rāua ko Tohu Kākahi i te tau 1907, ko tā rāua kaupapa, arā, kia patua te hoariri ki te rongomau, i whāia tonutia e te nuinga o ngā iwi o Taranaki. Ko te mau i te tohu o te raukura, ngā rau o te toroa, he tohu tērā kua horahia ki ngā rākau a Tū-ka-riri kia whai rautaki anō kia puta i te āhuatanga o Tūmatauenga.

Parihaka

Kua tautāwhitia ki Parihaka, he rangi tapu hei rangi whiriwhiri kōrero ki ngā take o te wā. I taua wā rā ko te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao te kaupapa i kaha kōrerohia. Ko te katoa o ngā iwi o Taranaki i whai wāhi ki aua kōrero rā. He pēnā anō hoki te aronga o ngā iwi o roto o Waikato, ā,  ko te whāinga nui ko te whakatika i ngā pēhitanga o te muru me te raupatu, te take i āia te pā ki Parihaka. Me whakatika i te tuatahi. Tē taea e ēnei iwi te karauna me tōna kaitohutohu a Kīngi Hōri IV te tautoko i roto i te pakanga i taua wā mēnā kei te noho whenua kore, mana kore tonu ngā iwi o Taranaki.

I muri mai i te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao koia ko te whakatika i ngā pēhitanga o te muru me te raupatu te whāinga nui o Pōmare i roto i āna mahi i te Pāremata. Nāna anō i tū ai te Komihana Simms i te tau 1928, kātahi ngā iwi i murua nei ō rātou whenua ka whai hua ahakoa he kongakonga noa iho.

I mua i te pakanga, tērā anō te Māori e mahi ana ki runga i ngā pāmu kau hei pononga mā ngā kaipāmu heoi anō nō te Pākehā te whenua. Ko aua Pākehā he hōia, he hoariri rātou i ngā pakanga whenua i roto o Taranaki ka tuku ki a rātou ngā whenua muru. Koinei te take i pupū ake ai te pātai i ngā tūpuna,

“He aha i whawhai ai mō te Karauna, te take pū e noho whenua kore ana te iwi Māori?”

Ko tētahi o ngā waiata tawhito o Parihaka ko ‘I te Rā o Maehe’. Ko te rā o Maehe te rā i pūhia tuatahitia ngā pū o te Kāwanatanga i te tau 1860 ki runga o Kohia Pā ki Waitara. Ko tētahi o ngā rārangi o te pito mutunga o taua waiata rā e kōrero ana mō te oranga tonutanga o te iwi Māori ahakoa ngā toimahatanga.

Tae noa ki te wā o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao ka kitea i te wā o te pakanga whenua, he nui tonu ngā taueke rangatira i mate atu, he moumou tangata ki te pō. Kāore i whai hua ki te mura o te ahi, he mea kaitangata. Koirā te mana nui o ngā mahi a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu, arā, tā rāua para huarahi anō e ora tonu ai te iwi.

Ahakoa te hiahia nui o tō rātou rangatira, o Tā Māui Pōmare, ko te nuinga kāore i haere ki te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. Ko tētahi tokoiti i haere, engari ko te nuinga o ngā iwi o Taranaki Maunga kāore i haere.

Koirā tonu tētahi taupatupatu i waenga i ngā iwi i te wā o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao tae noa mai ki tēnei wā. Ko Pōmare tētahi i kaha tautoko i te Kīngitanga o Ingarangi, ko te Karauna tērā.

Heoi anō, ahakoa pēhea te whakaaro, ko te aroha tonu tērā i rere atu ki a Pōmare me tōna māia. Nā āna mahi nui, nā tana mōhio ki ngā tikanga i whai oranga ai te iwi Māori. Nā reira e tika ana kia mihia a ia i āna mahi nui. He toka tū moana a Māui Wiremu Piti Naera Pōmare. 

  • TT
  • Tāngia.
  • Tiritiria.

Kaiako' Notes

He whakatakinga tēnei kohinga pārongo ki ngā tūāhuatanga i puta i te rohe o Taranaki i te pānga o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. Ka tirohia:

  • ngā pānga whānui o te pakanga ki roto o Taranaki;
  • te tangata e mōhiotia whānuitia ana ko Māui Pōmare;

me ētahi atu tirohanga ki te pakanga.

Tīkina ake.

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